1 Comment

Christensen's Innovator's Dilemma very much applies here. Those with less to loose - and fewer switching costs - can more wholeheartedly invest in electrification.

Collis and Montgomery's Resource Based View framework of tangible assets, intangible assets, and capabilities also apply, and that highlights some potential strengths - including cash flow, access to capital, manufacturing and distribution and support - that incumbents can bring to bear. (as you might guess, I use both in leading a Ford Motor case with undergrad and MBA students.)

Expand full comment